Faint traces of Bell Beaker influence can be recognized already in the pottery of the Upper Grave phase of the Single Grave period, and even of the late Ground Grave phase, such as occasional use of AOO-like or zoned decoration and other typical ornamentation, while Bell Beaker associated objects such as wristguards and small copper trinkets, also found their way into this northern territories of the Corded Ware Culture. [Flanagan 1998, p.78] Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusiveFlanagan 1998, p.82] beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. In Nicolis, F. Incidental finds suggest links to non-British Beaker territories, like a fragment of a bronze blade in County Londonderry that has been likened to the "palmella" points of Iberia, even though the relative scarcity of beakers, and Beaker-compatible material of any kind, in the "south-west" are regarded as an obstacle to any colonisation directly from Iberia, or even from France. distinguishes the following types using dates that are not calibrated:*Corded type. However, analysis of grave furnishing, size and deepness of grave pits, position within the cemetery, did not lead to any strong conclusions on the social divisions.The Late Copper Age is regarded as a continuous culture system connecting the Upper Rhine valley to the western edge of the Carpathian Basin. Traces of Ross Island copper can be found even further afield; in the Netherlands it makes up 12% of analysed copper artefacts, and Brittany 6% of analysed copper artefacts (Northover 1999, 214). It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. In Hauptmann, A., Pernicka, E., Rehren, T. and Yalçin, Ü. Ávila: Diputación Provincial de Ávila.] However, more details on the strategies for tending and slaughtering the domestic animals involved are forthcoming. The site demonstrates a notable absence of more common Bell Beaker pottery styles such as Maritime Herringbone and Maritime Lined varieties found in nearby sites like Castanheiro do Vento and Crasto de Palheiros. It is also quite old, being most frequently found in the 2100-1900 BCE period. (1975) Where is all the Tin? However, another possibility is the general circulation of Bell Beaker pottery, in its diverse styles and regional adaptations, in a short space of time during the 3rd millennium BC. However, another possibility is the general circulation of Bell Beaker pottery, in its diverse styles and regional adaptations, in a short space of time during the 3rd millennium BC. No evidence of other large scale immigrations took place and many scholars deny Celtic speech originated solely from La Tene culture, whose migrations started at about 400 BC. Other possible European sources of tin are located in Brittany and Iberia, but it is not thought they were exploited so early as these areas did not have Bronze until after it was well established in Britain and Ireland (Bradley 2007, 146).The most famous site in Britain from this period is Stonehenge, which had its Neolithic form elaborated extensively. Bochum: Dt. Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large.The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. The second building phase was dominated by a highly coherent group of pottery within the regional Chalcolithic styles, representing Maritime Bell Beakers of the local (northern Portuguese), "penteada" decoration style in various patterns, using lines of points, incision or impression. [Flanagan 1998, p.158] Although the typical Bell Beaker practice of crouched burial has been observed, [Flanagan 1998, p.96,151] cremation was readily adopted [Flanagan 1998, p.105-106, only fully at the vase tradition] in accordance with the previous tradition of the autochthons. [Exploring the World of the Celts - Simon James, Thames & Hudson ltd London, 1993, p.21, ISBN-13 978-0-500-27998-4] BritainBeakers arrived in Britain around 2500BC, declined in use around 2200-2100BC with the emergence of food vessels and cinerary urns and finally fell out of use around 1700BC (Needham 1996). Domestic sites with Beakers only appear 200-300 years after the first appearance of Bell Beakers in Europe, at the early part of the Danish Late Neolithic Period (LN I) starting at 2350 BC. The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions.The presence of perforated Beaker pottery, traditionally considered to be used for making cheese, at Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 95) and at Coval Simó (Coll 2000), confirms the introduction of production and conservation of dairy. 22; Kühn 1979, pl. The second building phase was dominated by a highly coherent group of pottery within the regional Chalcolithic styles, representing Maritime Bell Beakers of the local (northern Portuguese), "penteada" decoration style in various patterns, using lines of points, incision or impression. 2300 BC, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany-Poland, ca. The ‘bronze halberd’ (not to be confused with the medieval halberd) was a weapon in use in Ireland from around 2400-2000BC (Needham 1996, 124). In Britain, domestic assemblages from this period are very rare, making it hard to draw conclusions about many aspects of society. The site was located on the summit of a spur. [AN ALL-OVER CORDED BELL BEAKER IN NORTHERN PORTUGAL: CASTELO VELHO DE FREIXO DE NUMÃO (VILA NOVA DE FOZ CÔA): SOME REMARKS - Susana Oliveira Jorge [http://architectures.home.sapo.pt/JIA%204%20SOJc.pdf] ] The all-over corded (AOC) type, however, follows the pan-European tendency to generally demonstrate the earliest dates. Other possible European sources of tin are located in Brittany and Iberia, but it is not thought they were exploited so early as these areas did not have Bronze until after it was well established in Britain and Ireland (Bradley 2007, 146).The most famous site in Britain from this period is Stonehenge, which had its Neolithic form elaborated extensively. Most LN I metal objects are distinctly influenced by the western European Beaker metal industry, gold sheet ornaments and copper flat axes being the predominant metal objects. 4500 BC–2500 BC)*Únětice culture (ca. (1975) Where is all the Tin? 2800 ndash; 1900 BC, is the term for a widely scattered cultural phenomenon of prehistoric western Europe starting in the Their greater concentration in the northern part of the country,Flanagan 1998, p.78] which traditionally is regarded as the part of Ireland least blessed with sources of copper, has led many authorities to question the role of Beaker People in the introduction of metallurgy to Ireland. Most LN I metal objects are distinctly influenced by the western European Beaker metal industry, gold sheet ornaments and copper flat axes being the predominant metal objects. Oxford: Archaeopress 2006, BAR international series 1470.External links* [http://www.dover.gov.uk/museum/boat/graphics/beaker1.gifA Beaker from Kent] * [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/british_prehistory/bronzeageman_01.shtml BBC — History — Bronze Age Britain] * [http://www.stephen.j.murray.btinternet.co.uk/bronze.htm Bronze Age — Beaker People — Wessex Culture] * [http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Lobby/7681/origins_2.html The Beaker Folk in the Balkans] * [http://ubprehistoire.free.fr/Le-Prof-Article1.html Historical model of settling and spread of Bell Beakers Culture in the mediterranean France] * [http://ubprehistoire.free.fr/Le-Prof-Article2.html Le Campaniforme et l'Europe à la fin du Néolithique] *All Bell Beaker scientific articles on line [http://ubprehistoire.free.fr/Liens-Campaniforme.html free access]. And what about the All Over Cord/Ornamented Beaker? ): "Bell Beakers Today: pottery people, culture, symbols in prehistoric Europe" (two volumes). In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. Two related types, Carmona (Andalusia) and Salamó (Catalonia) are of a later period. Bell Beaker Culture in Bavaria used a specific type of copper, which is characterized by combinations of trace elements. A distinguished barbed wire element is thought to have migrated through central Italy first. "Antiquity" 49, 19-25*Darvill, T., "Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology", 2002, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5. In most of the areas of the mainland Boquique pottery falls into the latter stages of the Bell Beaker Complex as well. Bell Beaker Culture in Bavaria used a specific type of copper, which is characterized by combinations of trace elements. Three of them were carbon dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. As for the "settlements and monuments" within the Iberian context, Beaker pottery is generally found in association with local Chalcolithic material and appears most of all as an "intrusion" from the 3rd millennium in burial monuments whose origin may go back to the 4th or 5th millennium BC. Although controversial, the theory fits according to its proponents the archeological evidence that provides little support for westward migrations of Celtic people matching the historically known movements south and west. *Laurence Flanagan, "Ancient Ireland, Life before the Celts", 1998, Gil & MacMillan, ISBN 0-7171-2433-9.*R. It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. Domestic sites with Beakers only appear 200-300 years after the first appearance of Bell Beakers in Europe, at the early part of the Danish Late Neolithic Period (LN I) starting at 2350 BC. Archaic styles may have coexisted with more "evolved" styles. Collective burials in dolmen structures in Ibiza could be contrasted against the individual burials in Majorca. The local fine-ware pottery of Beaker derivation reveal links with other Beaker regions in western Europe, most specifically the Veluwe group at the Lower Rhine. The latter comprise Veluwe and Epi-Maritime in Continental northwestern Europe and the Middle Style Beakers (Style 2) in insular western Europe. However, many of the features or innovations of Beaker society in Britain never reached Ireland. A similar picture of cultural integration is was featured among Bell Beakers in central Europe, thus challenging previous theories of Bell Beakers as an elitist or purely super-structural phenomenon. Two related types, Carmona (Andalusia) and Salamó (Catalonia) are of a later period. No evidence of other large scale immigrations took place and many scholars deny Celtic speech originated solely from La Tene culture, whose migrations started at about 400 BC. After 2000BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island. the British combination of "round barrows with crouched, unburnt burials" make it difficult to establishes the exact nature of the Beaker People's colonization of Ireland.Flanagan 1998, p.81] In general, the "early" Irish Beaker intrusions don't attest [Flanagan 1998, p.84-85,116] the overall "Beaker package" of innovations that, once fully developed, swept Europe elsewhere, leaving Ireland behind. Incidental finds suggest links to non-British Beaker territories, like a fragment of a bronze blade in County Londonderry that has been likened to the "palmella" points of Iberia, even though the relative scarcity of beakers, and Beaker-compatible material of any kind, in the "south-west" are regarded as an obstacle to any colonisation directly from Iberia, or even from France. *Palmela type replaces the International style in the area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) c. 1900 BCE. [http://www.answers.com/topic/beaker-culture] The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology - Timothy Darvill, 2002, Beaker culture, p.42, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5] Bell Beaker domestic ware has no predecessors in Bohemia and Southern Germany, shows no genetic relation to the local Late Copper Age Corded Ware, nor to other cultures in the area, and is considered something completely new. It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. Acad. distinguishes the following types using dates that are not calibrated:*Corded type. The Bell Beaker domestic ware of Southern Germany are not as closely related to the Corded Ware as would be indicated by their burial rites. Along with other evidence during the earlier Beaker period in the Balearics, circa 2400-2000 BC, as shown by the local presence of elephant ivory objects together with significant Beaker pottery and other finds (Waldren 1979 and Waldren 1998), this maritime interaction can be shown to have a long tradition. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Únětice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which dividesculturally a northern from a southern area. Late Copper Age 1 was defined in Southern Germany by the connection of the late Cham Culture, Globular Amphora Culture and the older Corded Ware Culture of "beaker group 1" that is also referred to as Horizon A or Step A. [AN ALL-OVER CORDED BELL BEAKER IN NORTHERN PORTUGAL: CASTELO VELHO DE FREIXO DE NUMÃO (VILA NOVA DE FOZ CÔA): SOME REMARKS - Susana Oliveira Jorge [http://architectures.home.sapo.pt/JIA%204%20SOJc.pdf] ] The all-over corded (AOC) type, however, follows the pan-European tendency to generally demonstrate the earliest dates. Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Majorca and Formentera but has not been observed in Minorca or Ibiza. In the majority of Britain, beakers are contemporary with a visible shift from large communal tombs to individual burials or cremation, sometimes under barrows or cairns.Britain’s only unique export in this period is thought to be tin. Recently, the concept of this food vessels was discarded and replaced by a concept of two different traditions that rely on typology: the bowl tradition and the vase tradition, the bowl tradition being the oldest [Flanagan 1998, p.104] as it has been found inserted in existing Neolithic (pre-beaker) tombs, both court tombs and passage tombs. the British combination of "round barrows with crouched, unburnt burials" make it difficult to establishes the exact nature of the Beaker People's colonization of Ireland.Flanagan 1998, p.81] In general, the "early" Irish Beaker intrusions don't attest [Flanagan 1998, p.84-85,116] the overall "Beaker package" of innovations that, once fully developed, swept Europe elsewhere, leaving Ireland behind. Culture foot. Beaker-type vessels remained in use longest in the British Isles, late beakers in other areas are classified as early Bronze Age (barbed wire Beakers in the Netherlands, Giant Beakers (Riesenbecher)). The interaction between the Beaker groups on the Veluwe Plain and in Jutland must, at least initially, have been quite intensive. After 2000BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island. Irish food vessels were adopted in northern Britain around 2200BC and this roughly coincides with a decline in the use of beakers in Britain (Needham 1996). [Flanagan 1998, p.104-105 and 111-114] The vase tradition has a general distribution and feature almost exclusively cremation. These sites are concentrated in northern Jutland around the Limfjord and on the Djursland peninsula, largely contemporary to the local Upper Grave Period. 2300 BC–1600 BC)*Tumulus culture (ca. Another site of particular interest is Ferriby on the Humber estuary, where western Europe’s oldest plank built boat was recovered.JutlandIn Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave Culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Únětice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which dividesculturally a northern from a southern area. It was probably gathered in streams in Cornwall and Devon as cassiterite pebbles and traded in this raw, unrefined state (Charles 1975). A series of copper mines from here are the earliest known in Ireland, starting from around 2500BC (O’Brien 2004). In Nicolis, F. Bell Beaker Culture in Bavaria used a specific type of copper, which is characterized by combinations of trace elements. With some notable exceptions, most Iberian early Bell Beaker "burials" are at or near the coastal regions. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Únětice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which dividesculturally a northern from a southern area. According to this view the Beaker people emerged as an environmental phenotype that can be fully derived from the general physical type of the people of Northern Europe originally surrounding them. According to archaeology, the populational groups of the Bell-beakers also took part in the formation of the Gáta-Wieselburg culture on the western fringes of theCarpathian Basin, which could be confirmed with the anthropological Bell Beakerseries in Moravia and Germany.In accordance with anthropological evidence, it has been concluded the Bell Beakers intruded in an already established form the southern part of Germany as much as the East Group area.Iberian peninsulaThe Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age.At present no internal chronology for the various Bell Beaker-related styles has been achieved yet for Iberia. The ‘bronze halberd’ (not to be confused with the medieval halberd) was a weapon in use in Ireland from around 2400-2000BC (Needham 1996, 124). the British combination of "round barrows with crouched, unburnt burials" make it difficult to establishes the exact nature of the Beaker People's colonization of Ireland.Flanagan 1998, p.81] In general, the "early" Irish Beaker intrusions don't attest [Flanagan 1998, p.84-85,116] the overall "Beaker package" of innovations that, once fully developed, swept Europe elsewhere, leaving Ireland behind. Concurrent introduction of metallurgy shows that some people must have crossed cultural boundaries. *Continental type. In contrast to this, Marija Gimbutas derived the Beakers from east central European cultures that became "kurganized" by incursions of steppe tribes. The second building phase was dominated by a highly coherent group of pottery within the regional Chalcolithic styles, representing Maritime Bell Beakers of the local (northern Portuguese), "penteada" decoration style in various patterns, using lines of points, incision or impression. The latest workings from the Ross Island mines is dated to around 1700BC.As well as exporting raw copper/bronze, there were some technical and cultural developments in Ireland that had an important impact on other areas of Europe. After 2000BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island.